Facts About Seas & Oceans
We present to you Dr. William W. Hay, Professor of Geological Sciences at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A. he was formerly Dean of the Rosentiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami, Miami, Florida, U.S.A. We went with him on a marine expedition, to show us some of the phenomena connected to our study of the scientific miracles in the Qur'aan and Sunnah. We asked him many questions about the marine surface, the divider between the upper and the lower sea, and about ocean floor and marine geology. We also asked Professor Hay about the mixed-water partitions between the different seas and fresh water rivers. He was kind enough to answer all of our questions in great detail.
With regard to the partitions between the different seas, he explained that these bodies of water are not one homogeneous sea as it appears to us. Rather they are different seas, distinguished by varying degrees of salinity, temperature and density. In this slide, here the white lines represent partitions between two different seas (not shown - WWW Ed.) Each partition divides two seas that differ in temperature, salinity, density, marine biology and oxygen dissolubility. Scientists first had this picture in 1942 after hundreds of marine research stations were set up. In it we can see the divider between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean.
In the middle of this photo (not shown - Ed.), we see a colored triangle. This is the base of the Rock of Gibraltar. We can observe a colored partition between the two bodies of water, although the naked human eye cannot perceive it in nature. This has become possible by means of satellite photography and remote-sensing techniques. This photograph here was taken by a satellite utilizing the special thermal characteristics of the various water bodies, and it is for this reason that the seas show up with different colors (exact photos not shown - Ed. See Figure 13.1). For example, we here see light blue, dark blue and black. Other bodies of water show a greenish color. The different colors represent the difference in temperatures of the sea surface. However, as well all know, these oceans and seas will simply appear as blue in color to our eyes. These are partitions that can only be seen and perceived by scientific research and modern technology. Allah has informed us in the Qur'aan that: He has let free (maraja) the two seas meeting together: Between them is a barrier which they do not transgress. (Qur'aan 55:19-20).
Traditionally, there have been two major interpretations of this verse. One opinion states that according to the literal meaning of the term maraja, seas do meet and mix with each other. But the fact the Qur'aan goes on to state that there is barrier between them, means that this barrier will simply prevent the seas from encroaching upon each other or flooding over each other.
Proponents of the second opinion ask how can there be a barrier between the seas so that they do not encroach upon each other, while the verse indicates that the seas meet together? They concluded that the seas do not meet and sought another meaning for the term maraja, but now modern science provides us with enough information to settle this issue. The seas do meet together, as we have seen, for example, in the picture of the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean (not shown - WWW Ed.). Even though there is a slanted water barrier between them, we now know that through this barrier the water from each sea passes to the other. But when see the water from one sea enters the other sea, it loses its distinctive characteristics and becomes homogenized with the other water. In a way, this barrier serves as a transitional homogenizing area for the two waters.
This is an excellent example of Islamic modern scientific research. Modern techniques can thus be used to prove the inimitability of the Qur'aan. We discussed this verse and several other verses at great length with Professor Hay, and then we asked him the following question: "What is your opinion of this phenomenon, namely, that you have in your possession now texts which have been revealed 1400 years ago, and which described in minute detail secrets of the universe which no man at that time could ever have known, simply because the techniques and the equipment were not available?"
Professor Hay replied: "I find it very interesting that this sort of information is in the ancient scripture of the Holy Qur'aan, and I have no way of knowing where they would come from, but I think it is extremely interesting that they are there and that this work is going on to discover it, the meaning of some of the passages."
He was asked: Then you have flatly denied it to be just from a human source. Whom do you think is the original source of such information?
Professor Hay: "Well, I would think it must be the Divine Being!"
Truly this is divine knowledge which Allah sent in order to support the Message of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) who said:
Each Prophet has been given something to make his people believe in him. But I have been given a Revelation from Allah, and I hope that I will have the greatest number of followers on the Day of Judgement. [Al-Bukhari]
This Revelation contains its own miracle and stands as a proof for humanity until the Last Hour.
The miracle of the Qur'aan is an everlasting one, which is renewed until the Last Hour, and which may be known to all people in spite of their different cultural levels and historical times. The Bedouin in the desert as well as the university Professor will find in the Qur'aan that which will suffice him.
We present to you Professor Dorja Rao, he is a specialist in Marine Geology and he is currently teaching at King Abdul-Aziz University in Jeddah. We met him and presented a number of Qur'aanic verses containing scientific signs in the Qur'aan. He was astonished with what he saw and heard. He has read the interpretations of the Qur'aan and its verses in some specialized books. Among these verses, he discussed what Allah said in the Qur'aan.
Or (the unbelievers state) is like the depths of darkness in a vast deep ocean, overwhelmed with billow topped by billow, topped by (dark) clouds: Depths of darkness, one above another: If a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! For any to whom Allah does not give light, there is no light. (Qur'aan 24:40).
Professor Rao confirmed that scientists now know darkness by means of submarines that have enabled them to dive into the depths of the ocean, where human beings are not able to dive unaided for more than twenty to thirty meters. Those who dive for pearls do so in shallow waters and can not dive any deeper than this. Human beings can not survive in the deep dark part of the oceans, such as at a depth of 200 meters. But this verse speaks about a phenomenon found in very deep oceans.
Hence, the statement of Allah about the darkness in a vast deep sea does not refer to just any sea, because not every sea can be described as having accumulated darkness layered one over another. This sort of layered darkness in deep seas has two causes out of which is the result of the successive disappearances of color, one layer after the other. The light ray is composed of seven colors, and when the light ray hits water, it is scattered into these seven colors.
In this picture (See Figure 14.1) we see a ray of light going through the depth of the ocean. The upper layer has absorbed the red color in the first 10 meters. If a diver would dive to a depth of 30 meters and gets wounded there, he would not be able to see his blood, because the red color does not reach this depth. In the same way, as we see in this picture, orange rays are absorbed next. Then at the depth of 50 meters yellow rays are absorbed. At the depth of 100 meters green rays are absorbed. At depths beyond 200 meters, blue rays are absorbed, and so on. From this, we can see that the ocean becomes progressively darker, that is darkness takes place in layers of light. As for the second reason, darkness originates as a result of barriers which conceal light.
The light rays, which we see here, originate from the sun and absorbed by clouds, which in turn scatter some of the light rays, thus resulting in a layer of darkness under the clouds. This is the first layer of darkness. Then when light rays reach the surface of the ocean, they are reflected by the wave surface, thus giving it a shiny appearance. It is for this reason that when there are waves, the intensity of this reflection depends on the angle of the waves. Therefore, it is the waves that reflect light and therefore cause darkness. The un-reflected light rays penetrate into the depth of the ocean, and thus we divide the ocean into two main layers, the surface and the deep part. The surface of the ocean is characterized by the light and warmth, whereas the deep is characterized by darkness.
These two parts of the ocean differ with respect to their properties and characteristics, and the surface is further separated from the deep part by waves. These internal waves were only discovered in the year 1900. Scientists have recently discovered that there are internal waves which "occur on dense interfaces between layers of different densities. The internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because the deep waters have a higher density than the waters above them. Internal waves act like surface waves. They can also break just like surface waves. Internal waves cannot be seen by the human eye, but they can be detected by studying temperature or salinity changes at a given location.
Underneath these waves which separate the two parts of the ocean, the darkness begins. Fish at these depths cannot see. Their only source of light is from their bodies. This darkness which is layered or tiered one over the other is what is referred to in the Qur'aan: Darkness in a vast deep ocean, overwhelmed by billow topped by billow. (Qur'aan 24:40)
In other words, above those waves there are still more tiers of waves. The latter being found on the surface of the ocean. The Qur'aan then informs us that darkness is: Topped by clouds: Depths of darkness, one above another. (Qur'aan 24:40)
This darkness is caused by the barriers explained, in addition to the darkness caused by the absorption of colors at the different levels that are layered one over the other.
The Qur'aan goes on to say: When a man stretches out his hand, he can hardly see it! For any to whom Allah gives not light, there is no light. (Qur'aan 24:40)
Here is total darkness, submarines must bring their source of light with them, so who could have informed Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) of this?
We presented to Professor Rao many verses dealing with his area of specialization and we said: "What do you think of the existence of scientific information in the Qur'aan? How could Prophet Muhammad have known about these facts 14 centuries ago?"
Professor Rao replied: "It is difficult to imagine that this type of knowledge was existing at the time around 1400 years back. Maybe some of the things they have simple ideas about such, but to describe those things in great detail is very difficult. So, this is definitely not a simple human knowledge. A normal human being cannot explain this phenomenon in that much detail. So I thought the information must have come from a supernatural source."
Yes, the source of such knowledge must be from a level beyond that of man. It cannot be from nature, as Professor Rao said, but this is far beyond nature, and far beyond human capability. What Professor Rao was trying to say is that this is something which cannot be attributed to a natural being, for it is truly the speech of the one who knows nature, the universe and its secrets, as the Qur'aan tells us:
Say: The (Qur'aan) was sent down by Him who knows the secrets (that is) in the heavens and the earth... (Qur'aan 25:6).
It is from Allah. In this way, the testimonies of the scientists are concentrated one after the other in order to prove that this guidance and light contains in it the indisputable evidence of its truth, for the Qur'aan is the source of guidance until the Last Hour.
We present to you Professor Shroeder, a marine scientist from West Germany. We met him at the Seminar of Marine Scientists held at King Abdul-Aziz University in Jeddah. I was asked to deliver a talk on Marine Phenomenon between scientific discoveries and the Qur'aanic verses. The next day, Professor Shroeder stood up and commented on what I had said. He started saying:
"I would like to comment on the lecture which Shaykh Az-Zindani gave us yesterday, and would like to say how much I appreciate this lecture in the framework of such a scientific meeting. One doesnt need to be a Muslim, but even for me as a Christian, it is important to not only see science as it is, but also see it in a broader sense and picture and when compared with religion, see it in the framework of religion."
After that, Professor Shroeder proceeded to discuss the relationship between science and religion. He referred to the wide gap between the various religions and science, for there is a mutual repulsion between the leaders of religious thoughts and the masters of natural sciences. Professor Shroeder, however, was astonished when he was informed of the truth contained in various Qur'aanic verses revealed 1400 years ago. He commented:
"In many religions, we find that the leaders think science can take something from the religion. If science is making progress, the religion has to move back, it is being encroached on. Here, we see a completely different approach. Shaykh Az-Zindani showed us that the scientist is actually confirming what the Qur'aan is saying, what has been said already many, many years ago in the Qur'aan. Actually, that scientists are now discovering what has been said before, I think this is important. It is important for a symposium or a workshop to be participated, discussed, and agreed upon by scientists from all nations, and I am sure that all of us are going home and are now thinking more about the relationship between religion and marine science."
It becomes clear that what scientists are discovering only today, the Qur'aan revealed 1400 years ago. It remains for us to ask: Who informed Prophet Muhammad about this? Who revealed this knowledge to him? Because these are the truths that contemporary scientists know, whether they be astronomers, marine scientists, geologists, or specialists in any of the other fields of science and knowledge, but which the Qur'aan and Sunnah have mentioned. After having listened to us, Professor Shroeder, with utmost confidence stated the following answer.
"There is not science on the one side, religion on the other side. People are not talking to each other, but they are all going into one direction. They are saying the same thing in a different language, the scientific language (the abstract language) and the language of the scriptures, as expressed by the Shaykh."
He is demanding clearly that these facts be presented to everyone in the entire world, but specially to scientists in their centers of learning, in all languages, so that they may understand them clearly and so that the true relationship between religion and science may be clarified. We are talking about the religion that has been free from any distortion or falsification. True knowledge must be in conformity with true religion. As in the case of Islam, the Qur'aan says:
Are those equal, those who know and those who do not know? (Qur'aan 39:9)
Know, therefore, that there is no god but Allah. (Qur'aan 47:19)
Say: Behold all that is in the heavens and on earth. (Qur'aan 10:101)
Verily in the heavens and the earth, are signs for those who believe. And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth), are signs for those of assured faith. And in the alteration of night and day, and the fact that Allah sends down sustenance from the sky, and revives therewith the earth after its death, and in the change of the winds, - are signs for those that are wise. Such are the signs of Allah, which we rehearse to thee in truth: then in what exposition will they believe after Allah and his signs? (Qur'aan 45:3-6).
Religion urges us to acquire knowledge and commands us to contemplate the universe in a language that contemporaries understand.